## Nikola Tesla Books

Suppose an ideal system of this kind excited in the manner described, so that capacity on the free end is charged each time as the current alternates to a potential *P*. Then, since as before stated, the system in experiment illustrated was vibrating about 93,000 times per second, the total energy set in movement in the system would be

2 x 93,000 x $! {{P^{2} \times 145.8} \over {2 \times 9 \times 10^{11}}} $! watts.

Let it be further assumed that 1% of the total energy set in movement is frittered down in the lamps and that the number of these were *60*, as might have been the case in the presently described experiment. Suppose each lamp to take 50 watts, the total energy consumed in the lamps would be 3000 watts hence, under the above assumptions, the total energy set in movement in the excited system would have to be 100 times this amount or 300,000 watts. To satisfy this condition we would have

2 x 93,000 x $! {{P^{2} \times 145.8} \over {2 \times 9 \times 10^{11}}} $! = 300,000

and

*P*^{2} = $! {{54 \times 10^{13}} \over {186 \times 145.8}} $! = $! {10^{12} \times {540 \over {186 \times 145.8}}} $! or *P* = $! {10^{6} \sqrt{540 \over {186 \times 145.8}}} $! =

= $! {10^{6} \sqrt{540 \over 27,118.8}} $! = $! {10^{6} \sqrt{0.02}} $! approx. or = $! {10^{6} \sqrt{2 \over 100}} $! = $! {10^{5} \sqrt{2}} $! =

= 10^{5} x 1.414 or ** P = 141,400** volts.

Not very much, as will be seen, for such a pressure is extremely small with apparatus of the kind used here. Taking *P* roughly as 140,000 volts and assuming that the ground plate be at such a distance that only 1000 volts are impressed upon the same then the magnifying factor would have to be only 140. Of course, this is merely an example to support the above statement that considerable energy may in this way, and by such apparatus, be conveyed to a distant circuit which is connected to the ground at only one point directly or, if desired, through a condenser.

The explanation to Photograph XXII concerning the transmission of power from the excited primary circuit to the “extra coil” via the earth is similar to that he gave in 1893^{(6)}. The experiment to which the photograph refers was made with the aim of estimating the power of the oscillator from the thermal effect of the HF current. What Tesla calls the “total energy set in movement” would correspond to the total energy transferred to condenser in the secondary (i.e. the power) if an energy of $!{1 \over 2}$! *CV*^{2} is transferred in each half-cycle. It can be shown that the active power dissipated in the circuit is much less than this and is inversely proportional to the *Q*-factor of the oscillating circuit.

January 2

Tesla gave his observations on 22 pages. On them he described eleven photographs. The explanation along with photograph No. 22 about energy transmission from excitation of the primary circuit to "additional coil" over the earth surface is similar to the one from 1893^{(6)}. Otherwise the experiment to which the photograph is related was performed for the purpose of oscillator power estimate on the basis of thermal effects of high frequency current.

That which Tesla calls "total energy placed in motion" would correspond to the total energy which is supplied to a capacitor per second (i.e. power) if energy ½CV^{2} is supplied during the duration of one half of the period.

It could be shown that the active power which is spent in the circuit is considerably smaller than this power, and opposite, proportionally to the quality factor of the oscillating circuit. On several following photographs, the movable resonant coil with connected bulbs is photographed which is supplied by transmitted high frequency energy. One terminal of this coil is connected to the ground, and the other is open ended or a short piece of wire is connected to it. Bulbs are coupled by means of the auxiliary secondary coil inductively with the secondary coil. The data was not given on the distance of resonant coil from the oscillator coil. Tesla's comment on photograph No. 27 illustrates the interest on the question of electrical lightning, though he worked on this for more than ten years. One earlier discovery on gas elimination and not only filament, when working with high frequency currents is again proven^{(5)}.

On photograph No. 28 the bulb is connected in series with a terminal capacitance load. In the calculations "total energy placed in movement" is not taken when it was assumed that the electrostatic energy ½CV^{2} is spent in the bulb during one half of the period. A similar comment is valid for photograph No. 29.

Tesla mentioned several times that the main transmission from the exciting to the excited circuit is done via the ground. The proof for this statement he found in the experiment illustrated by photograph No. 30. He concluded that the induced voltage in the excited circuit is significantly reduced when the ground connection is disconnected. Photograph No. 31 is an X-ray photograph of a finger. The comments on this experiment are an illustration of Tesla's interest in the radiation field which was mentioned earlier (please see comment on June 6, 1899).