## Nikola Tesla Books

Books written by or about Nikola Tesla

# Nikola Tesla: Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900Page 363

January 2, 1900

and

P = $! {3000 \over \sqrt{214}}$! = $! {3000 \over 14.63}$! = 205 volts only!

We see that with such an extreme frequency the voltage of the ordinary incandescent lamp supply circuit would be sufficient to pass enough current through the lamp. Under the above conditions the current would be

I = ECω = $! {{205 \times 500 \times 2 \pi \times 214 \times 10^{4}} \over {9 \times 10^{11}}}$! = 1.5313 amp. approx.

In the experiment illustrated in Plate XXIX. it will be seen that while the inductance of the “extra coil” was greatly reduced by shunting the same with the lamp, yet the coil was still effective, as is evidenced from the streamers visible on the wire leading from the lower end of the coil to the lamp, which is the wire marked w' in the corresponding diagram.

Passing now to the experiment illustrated in plate designated number XXX., the connections in this case are shown in diagram below.

Here the lamp was lighted only by induction from the primary circuit, the ground connection being omitted. In this case the capacity was 3 tanks on each side or 1 1/2 tanks total = 54 bottles = 54 x 0.0009 = 0.0486 mfd and the inductance 41,000 + 3 turns of the regulating coil = 41,000 + 10,000 = 51,000 cm, or $! {51 \over 10^{6}}$! H approx. This gives

$! {T_{p} = {{2 \pi \over 10^{3}} \sqrt{0.0486 \times {51 \over 10^{6}}}} = {{2 \pi \times 1.37} \over 10^{6}} = {8.6 \over 10^{6}}}$!

and n = 116,300 approx.

Note: Here the excitation of the primary circuit had to be strong, showing that the inductive action was feeble in comparison with action through the ground. The tuning was not quite exact in all these experiments described as time was pressing. In the last experiment n ought to have been just twice the value found in case XXVIII.

XXXI. This is a Roentgen photograph taken in a peculiar manner. It so happened that a workman who thought he had injured one of his figures desired to have a photograph taken and a tube was inserted between the ground plate and a coil, as illustrated in the diagram under XXII. It was doubtful whether the tube could be energized in this manner but the experiment proved that it could and a photograph was taken by flashing the tube a few times, after the adjustment of the vibration in the primary and excited circuit was completed and resonating condition in the latter secured. Nothing peculiarly interesting beyond the manner of taking the photograph was contemplated, nevertheless an inspection revealed that this photograph, probably owing to the high economy of the oscillating systems used in these experiments, or possibly on account of the frequency, was distinctly different from many others taken with different apparatus. The tube was not strongly excited and the exposure was scarcely more than a few seconds, yet much of detail was recorded. It is quite curious how plainly the nails are shown, much as in an ordinary photograph.

363

The explanation to Photograph XXII concerning the transmission of power from the excited primary circuit to the “extra coil” via the earth is similar to that he gave in 1893(6). The experiment to which the photograph refers was made with the aim of estimating the power of the oscillator from the thermal effect of the HF current. What Tesla calls the “total energy set in movement” would correspond to the total energy transferred to condenser in the secondary (i.e. the power) if an energy of $!{1 \over 2}$! CV2 is transferred in each half-cycle. It can be shown that the active power dissipated in the circuit is much less than this and is inversely proportional to the Q-factor of the oscillating circuit.

January 2

Tesla gave his observations on 22 pages. On them he described eleven photographs. The explanation along with photograph No. 22 about energy transmission from excitation of the primary circuit to "additional coil" over the earth surface is similar to the one from 1893(6). Otherwise the experiment to which the photograph is related was performed for the purpose of oscillator power estimate on the basis of thermal effects of high frequency current.

That which Tesla calls "total energy placed in motion" would correspond to the total energy which is supplied to a capacitor per second (i.e. power) if energy ½CV2 is supplied during the duration of one half of the period.

It could be shown that the active power which is spent in the circuit is considerably smaller than this power, and opposite, proportionally to the quality factor of the oscillating circuit. On several following photographs, the movable resonant coil with connected bulbs is photographed which is supplied by transmitted high frequency energy. One terminal of this coil is connected to the ground, and the other is open ended or a short piece of wire is connected to it. Bulbs are coupled by means of the auxiliary secondary coil inductively with the secondary coil. The data was not given on the distance of resonant coil from the oscillator coil. Tesla's comment on photograph No. 27 illustrates the interest on the question of electrical lightning, though he worked on this for more than ten years. One earlier discovery on gas elimination and not only filament, when working with high frequency currents is again proven(5).

On photograph No. 28 the bulb is connected in series with a terminal capacitance load. In the calculations "total energy placed in movement" is not taken when it was assumed that the electrostatic energy ½CV2 is spent in the bulb during one half of the period. A similar comment is valid for photograph No. 29.

Tesla mentioned several times that the main transmission from the exciting to the excited circuit is done via the ground. The proof for this statement he found in the experiment illustrated by photograph No. 30. He concluded that the induced voltage in the excited circuit is significantly reduced when the ground connection is disconnected. Photograph No. 31 is an X-ray photograph of a finger. The comments on this experiment are an illustration of Tesla's interest in the radiation field which was mentioned earlier (please see comment on June 6, 1899).

## Glossary

Lowercase tau - an irrational constant defined as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its radius, equal to the radian measure of a full turn; approximately 6.283185307 (equal to 2π, or twice the value of π).
A natural rubber material obtained from Palaquium trees, native to South-east Asia. Gutta-percha made possible practical submarine telegraph cables because it was both waterproof and resistant to seawater as well as being thermoplastic. Gutta-percha's use as an electrical insulator was first suggested by Michael Faraday.
The Habirshaw Electric Cable Company, founded in 1886 by William M. Habirshaw in New York City, New York.
The Brown &amp; Sharpe (B &amp; S) Gauge, also known as the American Wire Gauge (AWG), is the American standard for making/ordering metal sheet and wire sizes.
A traditional general-purpose dry cell battery. Invented by the French engineer Georges Leclanché in 1866.
Refers to Manitou Springs, a small town just six miles west of Colorado Springs, and during Tesla's time there, producer of world-renown bottled water from its natural springs.
A French mineral water bottler.
Lowercase delta letter - used to denote: A change in the value of a variable in calculus. A functional derivative in functional calculus. An auxiliary function in calculus, used to rigorously define the limit or continuity of a given function.
America's oldest existing independent manufacturer of wire and cable, founded in 1878.
Lowercase lambda letter which, in physics and engineering, normally represents wavelength.
The lowercase omega letter, which represents&nbsp;angular velocity in physics.&nbsp;